The word motor has been associated to various things in our day to day life right from the beginning. We have heard of this word as a close counterpart of many machines like motor bike, motor boat and motor car. Going slang, many years back, people used to address a car as “motor gaadi”. But did we ever bother to peep in the aspect of “electric motors”, or what exactly a motor is? What is its composition or how does it work? Let’s have a brief on this much talked about, yet superficially known aspect of electric motors.
An electric motor is a machine that converts electric energy into mechanical energy. But how does it function? Here’s the answer- the basic idea or the basic principle of motors is that they cause to interact magnetic fields and current carrying conductors, and the output is force. This force serves the functioning of motors. It’s all about magnets and magnetism, so if you have knowledge about magnets and their laws, understanding the concept of that motors isn’t a tough task for you. Few electric motors also use electrostatic forces.
The reverse process, i.e., converting mechanical energy into electrical energy is performed by generators such as alternator or a dynamo. Various types of electric motors can be used in forms of generators. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics serve as a good source of mechanical power for industrial uses. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of ships, pipeline compressors, and water pumps with ratings in the millions of watts.Motors can be categorized by the source of electric power, by their internal construction, by their application, or by the type of motion they give.
The first conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821. This was the principle of electric motors.
Almost every machine has a motor in it. The mechanical movement is a result of either AC (Alternate Current) or DC (Direct Current).A simple electric motor has six parts:
1. Armature or rotor
5. Field magnet
6. DC power supply of some sort
Understanding the functioning of electric motors can help you a great deal in understanding the functioning of magnets, electromagnets and fundamentals of electricity. You will no longer stand with queries and worries in your mind, when you are caught in a situation where you need to deal with electrical stuffs.
The idea of electric motors has just not been restricted to household appliances; it has been extensively used elsewhere because of its efficiency and results. For e.g. electric cars, pumps, boats, bicycles. Its use demonstrates smooth functioning and a pollution free environment.